All-Albanian Congress

article - All-Albanian Congress

The All-Albanian Congress[1] (Albanian: Kongresi Gjithë Shqipëtar) or Albanian National Congress[2] or Albanian Independence Congress[3] was a held in Vlorë (then Ottoman Empire, today Republic of Albania) on November 28, 1912.[4] Congress participants constituted the Assembly of Vlorë which established Albanian Provisional Government and elected Ismail Qemali as its president.[5]

Ismail Qemali, the prime initiator of the Congress.

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The success of the Albanian Revolt of 1912 sent a strong signal to the neighboring countries that the Ottoman Empire was weak.[6] The Kingdom of Serbia opposed the plan for an Albanian Vilayet, preferring a partition of the European territory of the Ottoman Empire among the four Balkan allies.[7] Balkan allies planned the partition of the European territory of the Ottoman Empire among them and in the meantime the conquered territory was agreed to have status of the Condominium.[8]

The combined armies of the Balkan allies overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies, and achieved rapid success. As a result of their success, almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire were captured by Balkan allies, which destroyed the plans for Albanian autonomy and independence.[9] About two weeks before the congress was held, Albanian leaders appealed to Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria-Hungary, explaining the difficult situation in their country divided into four vilayets occupied by Balkan allies.[10]Austria-Hungary and Italy strongly opposed the arrival of Serbian army on the Adriatic Sea because they perceived it as treat to their domination of the Adriatic and feared that Serbian Adriatic port could become a Russian base.[11]

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