Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a cluster of mental disorders characterized by significant and uncontrollable feelings of anxiety and fear[2] such that a person’s social, occupational, and personal function are significantly impaired.[2] Anxiety may cause physical and cognitive symptoms, such as restlessness, irritability, easy fatiguability, difficulty concentrating, increased heart rate, chest pain, abdominal pain, and a variety of other symptoms that may vary based on the individual.[2]

Cognitive disorder with an excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations

Medical condition
Anxiety disorder
The Scream (Norwegian: Skrik) a painting by Norwegian artist Edvard Munch[1]
Specialty Psychiatry, clinical psychology
Symptoms Worrying, fast heart rate, shakiness[2]
Complications Depression, trouble sleeping, poor quality of life, suicide[3]
Usual onset 15–35 years old[4]
Duration > 6 months[2][4]
Causes Genetic, environmental, and psychological factors[5]
Risk factors Child abuse, family history, poverty[4]
Diagnostic method Psychological assessment
Differential diagnosis Hyperthyroidism; heart disease; caffeine, alcohol, cannabis use; withdrawal from certain drugs[4][6]
Treatment Lifestyle changes, counselling, medications[4]
Medication Antidepressants, anxiolytics, beta blockers[5]
Frequency 12% per year[4][7]

In casual discourse, the words anxiety and fear are often used interchangeably. In clinical usage, they have distinct meanings: anxiety is defined as an unpleasant emotional state for which the cause is either not readily identified or perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable, whereas fear is an emotional and physiological response to a recognized external threat.[8] The umbrella term anxiety disorder refers to a number of specific disorders that include fears (phobias) or anxiety symptoms.[2]

There are several types of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and selective mutism.[2] The individual disorder can be diagnosed using the specific and unique symptoms, triggering events, and timing.[2] If a person is diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, a medical professional must have evaluated the person to ensure the anxiety cannot be attributed to another medical illness or mental disorder.[2] It is possible for an individual to have more than one anxiety disorder during their life or at the same time[2] and anxiety disorders are marked by a typical persistent course.[9] For individuals with anxiety, there are numerous treatments and strategies that can improve their mood, behaviors, and ability to function in daily life.

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Facial expression of someone with chronic anxiety

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common disorder, characterized by long-lasting anxiety which is not focused on any one object or situation. Those suffering from generalized anxiety disorder experience non-specific persistent fear and worry, and become overly concerned with everyday matters. Generalized anxiety disorder is “characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance”.[10] Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder to affect older adults.[11] Anxiety can be a symptom of a medical or substance use disorder problem, and medical professionals must be aware of this. A diagnosis of GAD is made when a person has been excessively worried about an everyday problem for six months or more.[12] These stresses can include family life, work, social life, or their own health. A person may find that they have problems making daily decisions and remembering commitments as a result of lack of concentration and/or preoccupation with worry.[13] A symptom can be a strained appearance, with increased sweating from the hands, feet, and axillae,[14] and they may be tearful, which can suggest depression.[15] Before a diagnosis of anxiety disorder is made, physicians must rule out drug-induced anxiety and other medical causes.[16]

In children, GAD may be associated with headaches, restlessness, abdominal pain, and heart palpitations.[17] Typically it begins around 8 to 9 years of age.[17]

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