Evansville is the location of the Oregon Trail State Veterans Cemetery.
The town was named after W.T. Evans, a blacksmith.
Evans settled in the area in 1902, and built a successful ranch. From 1918 to 1920, portions of the ranch were sold to the Socony-Mobil and Texas Oil Companies.
Evansville is located at 42°51′28″N106°15′33″W (42.857798, -106.259102).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.58 square miles (9.27 km2), of which 3.54 square miles (9.17 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2) is water.
In 2018, an area of contaminated groundwater that had been classified as a superfund site for three decades was partially removed from the EPA‘s National Priorities List. Contaminants at the site include benzene and tetrachloroethene. It is believed that the contamination at the Mystery Bridge/U.S. Highway 20 Superfund site was caused by industrial operations at a plant operated by Kinder Morgan and an industrial truck wash operated by Dow Chemical and Dowell-Schlumberger.