Trillium recurvatum

Trillium recurvatum, the prairie trillium,[3]toadshade,[4][5] or bloody butcher,[6] is a species of perennialherbaceousflowering plant in the familyMelanthiaceae.[3][6] It is native to parts of central and eastern United States, where it is found from Iowa south to Texas and east to North Carolina and Pennsylvania.[6][7] It grows in mesic forests and savannas, often in calcareous soils.[8][9] It is also known as bloody noses,[3]red trillium,[4]prairie wake-robin,[5]purple trillium,[10] and reflexed trillium,[11] in reference to its reflexed sepals.[11][10]

Species of plant

Trillium recurvatum
In Little Rock, Arkansas, showing recurved sepals

Secure  (NatureServe)[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Liliales
Family: Melanthiaceae
Genus: Trillium
T. recurvatum
Binomial name
Trillium recurvatum

  • Phyllantherum recurvatum(L.C.Beck) Nieuwl.
  • Trillium unguiculatumRaf.
  • Trillium unguiculatumNutt.

. . . Trillium recurvatum . . .

Trillium recurvatum grows up to 40 cm (16 in) tall with three ovate to lanceolate bracts, mottled green, 6 to 18 cm (2 to 7 in) long and 2 to 6.5 cm (1 to 3 in) across, petiolate at maturity.[3][10]

The flower has three brown to maroon petals that are 1.8 to 4.8 cm (1 to 2 in) long and 0.9 to 2 cm (0 to 1 in) across, with the petal tips arching over the stamens.[3][10] The sepals are recurved, pointing downwards when the flower has fully opened. The anthers are also dark purple, up to 16 mm (1 in) long.[12] The stigmas are recurved at the tips.[12] It is distinguished from other sessile-flowered Trillium species, such as Trillium sessile, by its reflexed sepals.[10]

The fruit is green, sometimes streaked with purple or white, with six well-developed ridges.[12] The seeds have an oil-rich structure called an elaiosome, which promotes dispersal by ants and other foraging insects.

  • A population in the early stages of flowering, still in bud
  • An individual with mature fruit, late in the summer
  • Fruits and seeds
  • An unusual individual with four leaves

. . . Trillium recurvatum . . .

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. . . Trillium recurvatum . . .