Neumark

The Neumark (listen (help·info)), also known as the New March (Polish: Nowa Marchia) or as East Brandenburg (German: Ostbrandenburg (help·info)), was a region of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and its successors located east of the Oder River in territory which became part of Poland in 1945.

Region in the Margraviate of Brandenburg
For other uses, see Neumark (disambiguation).
Neumark or East Brandenburg

NeumarkorOstbrandenburg(de)
Nowa Marchia(pl)
Terra trans Oderam(la)
Region of the Margraviate of Brandenburg
1252–1945
Coat of arms of Brandenburg, shared by the Neumark

The Margraviate of Brandenburg c. 1320, showing the Neumark as the portion reaching out to the east. Cross-hatched are territories also acquired by the House of Ascania outside of Brandenburg.
Capital Soldin
History
Historical era Middle Ages,
Modern era
1252
 Pawned to the Teutonic Knights
1402–63a
 Partitioned to form Brandenburg-Küstrin
1535–71
 Electors inherited Duchy of Prussia
1618
 Expanded on abolition of Posen-West Prussia
1938
 Potsdam Conference awarded most of Neumark to Poland
17 July – 2 Aug 1945
1 January 1999

Preceded by

Succeeded by
Lubusz Land
Lubusz Voivodeship
Today part of
a: Pawned to the Teutonic Knights in 1402, who gained complete control of the territory by 1429. Pawned back to Brandenburg in 1455, whose reacquisition of the territory was completed in 1463.

Called the Lubusz Land while part of medieval Poland, the territory later known as the Neumark gradually became part of the GermanMargraviate of Brandenburg from the mid-13th century. As Brandenburg-Küstrin the Neumark formed an independent state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1535 to 1571; after the death of the margrave John, a younger son of Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg, it returned to Elector John George, the margrave’s nephew and Joachim I Nestor’s grandson. With the rest of the Electorate of Brandenburg, it became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701 and part of the German Empire in 1871 when each of those states first formed. After World War I the entirely ethnic German Neumark remained within the Free State of Prussia, itself part of the Weimar Republic (Germany).

After World War II the Potsdam Conference assigned the majority of the Neumark to Polish administration, and since 1945 has remained part of Poland. Polish settlers largely replaced the expelled German population. Most of the Polish territory became part of the Lubusz Voivodeship, while the northern towns Choszczno (Arnswalde), Myślibórz (Soldin), and Chojna (Königsberg in der Neumark) belong to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. Some territory near Cottbus, which was administratively part of the Government Region of Frankfurt (coterminous with the Neumark) after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, became part of East Germany in the 1940s, becoming part of Germany after reunification in 1990.

. . . Neumark . . .

The Oder marked the borders of the Neumark in the west and south; in the north it bordered Pomerania, and in the east Poland (after the Second Partition of Poland, the Province of Posen). The Warta and Noteć Rivers and their swamp regions dominated the landscape of the region. At the time of the Neumark’s greatest territorial extent (at the end of the 17th century), the region included the following later Kreise (districts) and towns:

  • Arnswalde [de] (1818–1945; from 1938 part of Pomeranian Region of Posen-West Prussia), based in Neuwedell (till 1908), thereafter in Arnswalde
  • Crossen (Oder) [de] (1818–1945), based in Crossen upon Oder
  • Friedeberg [de] (1816–1945; from 1938 part of Pomeranian Region of Posen-West Prussia), based in Friedeberg in the New March
  • Königsberg (New March) [de] (1816–15 March 1946, remainder west of the Oder merged into Angermünde [de], Lebus [de] and Oberbarnim districts [de]), based in Königsberg in the New March
  • Landsberg (Warthe) [de] (1818–1945), based in Landsberg upon Warthe
  • Soldin [de] (1818–1945), based in Soldin
  • Sternberg [de], (1816–1873; partitioned into Oststernberg [de] and Weststernberg [de]), based in Zielenzig (till 1852), thereafter in Drossen

. . . Neumark . . .

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